Publication Rules

1. Purposes

• To contribute to the establishment of scientific communication issues in earth sciences both in Turkey and internationally.

• To contribute to economic (mining, oil and gas, geothermal etc.), environmental and social (geoheritage etc.) studies in Turkey and in the World.

• To make the earth science scientific research and applications made by the MTA on publicly known,

• To use the bulletin as an effective tool in the international publication exchange by keeping it at a high level in terms of quality, scope and format,

• To contribute to the efforts of developing Turkish as a language of science and removing foreign words.

2. Scope-Attribute

In order for manuscripts to be published in the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, they must have at least one of the following qualifications:

2.1. Research Articles and Reviews

2.1.1. Original Scientific Researches

• Such articles cover original scientific research and its results that contribute to the fundamental issues of earth sciences, research and evaluation of underground resources, and examine the environmental problems in terms of earth sciences,

• It covers research that apply new approaches and methods in solving problems related to earth sciences.

2.1.2. Review Articles

• They cover studies that compile previous research on subjects of earth sciences with a critical approach and put forward a new opinion on that subject.

2.2. Criticism and Response Articles

• Articles that criticize all or part of an article of the bulletin in the latest issue are published in the following first issue, if submitted within six months at the latest from the date of publication digitally.

• Before the publication, review articles are sent to the responsible author of the criticized article to make a response.

• If the criticism is not responded within foreseen time, the criticism letter is published alone, subsequent replies are not published. Replies are not allowed to be re-criticized.

• In criticizing and replying, scientific discussion and ethical rules should be followed. Criticism and response manuscripts should not exceed four pages, including figures, if available.

2.3. Brief Notes

• In "Brief Notes" section of the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, the brief, objective and concise articles reflecting the data obtained from scientific researches and applications carried out in the area of earth sciences or new findings related to previously unknown geosciences in Turkey are given place.

• The articles arranged in the "Brief Notes" section are published without waiting in the first or in the second issue the latest, after the date they are sent to the Chair of the Editorial Board in order to ensure rapid communication.

• Articles requested to be published in the "Brief Notes" section should not exceed four pages, including all figures and tables.

3. Submission and Acceptance for Manuscripts

• The manuscripts submitted to be published in the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration should be prepared in TURKISH and / or ENGLISH in accordance with the Publishing Rules of the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, and submitted via electronic application at

• The manuscript must not have been previously published partially or completely elsewhere (except in abstract form).

• Manuscripts submitted with the request for publication in the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration should not exceed 30 pages, including all illustrations. The articles exceeding 30 pages can be published if deemed appropriate by referees and editors.

• In the submitted manuscript, the number of figures and tables should be given in proportion to the main text in a ratio of 1/3.

• Corresponding author is asked to suggest at least three referees for the evaluation of the manuscript. (The proposed referees and the authors should not have any joint work within the last two years).

• Manuscripts that do not comply with the Publishing Rules for the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration in terms of quality and form are directly returned without being examined in terms of content.

• Manuscripts deemed appropriate in terms of format are sent to at least two expert referees for review by the Editorial Board of the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration.

• Authors should make the referee corrections and suggestions sent to them within 20 days and upload to the system.

• Comments from referees are evaluated by the Editors and associated editors. Manuscripts deemed necessary to be corrected are sent back to the authors with a request for correction. Whether the suggested corrections have been made or not is checked by the Editorial Board.

• In the revision proposals given by the editors and referees, if there are suggestions that are not accepted by the author and have not been corrected, a report explaining the reason for rejecting these suggestions by the author should be sent to the Editorial Board together with the corrected copies.

• After the last control at the printing stage, the pre-print of the manuscript is sent to the authors in pdf format and the printing control is requested.

• Articles, not accepted for publication are not returned to the authors, for the unpublished articles, a letter is written to the responsible author indicating the reason for rejection.

4. Language and Period of Publication

• The Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration is published three times a year, each issue as being in Turkish and the other in English languages.

• The spelling rules of the Turkish Language Association are valid for the spelling rules for the Turkish issue. However, in spelling of the words related to earth sciences, the spelling forms of technical terms are used in accordance with the decision of the Editorial Board (For example; underground, ground, earth's crust, etc.).

5. Spelling Draft

• The text of the manuscripts to be sent for the first review with the request to be published in the Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration should be written in A4 (29.7 x 21 cm) size, word format, Times New Roman 10 pt., normal with 2.0 line spacing.

• At the bottom, top, left and right of the page 2.5 cm indent must be left. Formulas that require the use of special letters and symbols should be presented in computer media.

• In all subtitles, the initials of all words must be capital. First degree headings to be used in the article should be written in Times New Roman, 10 pt., bold and left aligned by giving numbers. Secondary headings should be written in Times New Roman, 10 pt., normal font and left aligned by giving numbers. Third-degree headings should be written in Times New Roman, 10 pt., italic font and left-aligned by giving numbers. Fourth-order headings should be written in Times New Roman, 10 pt., italic, aligned to the left, without giving numbers, and the text should continue after the title without a colon and a paragraph (see example article:

• One blank line should be left after paragraphs in the text.

• Paragraph headings should be written 0.5 mm indentation.

• One article should respectively contain;


-Author's Name and Surname and * sign

- Abstract

- Keywords

- Introduction

- Main Text

- Discussion

- Results

- Acknowledgements

- Reference sections.

• Line and page numbers must be added to the article text.

5.1. Title of the Article

• The title should reflect the subject of the article as briefly, clearly and adequately as possible. Subjects that are not sufficiently covered in the article should not be included in the title. The first letter of the title should be capitalized and the other words should be in lowercase letters (except for proper names) in Times New Roman, 12 pt. and bolded.

5.2. Author Name, Address, and E-Mail Address

• The first name of the authors should be in lowercase (except the first letter), and the surname should be in capital letters and without any title.

• Only the name of the organization should be specified in the occupational address after the name and surname of the authors (position should not be specified).

• ORCID number should be taken from and placed under the address.

• In articles written by more than one author, numbers should be placed on surnames of the authors, the address information should be included in the bottom line with a single line spacing. In this section, the corresponding author of the article should be indicated by using an asterisk (*), and the corresponding author's e-mail, telephone, and other contact information must be provided.

• Abbreviations should not be used in writing the author's name and address. Addresses should be given in Turkish publications and in English in English publications.

5.3. Abstract

• Abstract should be written at a level that can be understood without referring to the other parts of the article.

• The abstract should be organized as a brief presentation of the sections in the article, reflect the purpose of the article, be informative, and should be written in a way to emphasize new data and results on the subject.

• Short and simple sentences should be used in writing the abstract.

• In the abstract, there should not be any reference to other parts and illustrations of the article or to other articles.

• Information not mentioned in the main text should not be included in the abstract.

• The abstract should not exceed approximately 200 words and should be written as a single paragraph.

• Abstract should be written in Times New Roman, 10 pt., normal text with single line spacing.

• "ABSTRACT" should not be placed for the articles to be included in the "Brief Notes" section.

• The English abstract should be given under the heading "ABSTRACT".

5.4. Keywords

In order to facilitate searches, 5 keywords that will indicate the general content of the article should be selected and specified in this section. Words used in the title should not be repeated. Keywords should be separated with a comma, the first letter of each keyword should be in the capital.

5.5. Introduction

• In this section, the necessary information for preparatory and facilitative to understand the article such as the purpose of the study, its location, methods of study, and previous reviews on the subject should be given.

• If an unusual way is followed in naming, classification, and abbreviations within the text of the manuscript, its reason should be stated in this section.

• Each of the topics to be included in this section can create a separate paragraph or a subtitle can be given for each of them when necessary (e.g. method, material, terminology and etc.).

• This section can again be used when reminder information is needed to facilitate the understanding of the article (e.g. statistical information, formulas, experimental or application methods and etc.).

5.6. Main Body of Article

• Constitutes the main body of the article.

• In this section, the data, findings, and opinions that are intended to be transferred to the reader on the subject are mentioned.

• The data used in other parts of the article such as "Abstract", "Discussions", "Results" originate from this part.

• Care should be taken not to deviate from the purpose stressed in the "Introduction" section of the article when dealing with the topics. Information that does not contribute to the achievement of the purpose of the article or that is not used to reach the conclusion should not be included.

• All data used in this section and all opinions put forward should be proven by the findings obtained from the studies or based on a source by reference.

• The way and method to be followed in handling the topics vary according to the characteristics of the topics covered.

• Subject headings in necessary numbers with different stages should be used in this section.

5.7. Discussions

• The data and findings objectively conveyed in the "Main Text" section of the article should be discussed by the author in this section. Discussions should be separate from the "Results" section.

5.8. Results

• New data and findings obtained from the review that constitutes the subject of the article should be stated concisely and concretely in this section.

• Subjects that are not adequately addressed and/or covered in the main text should not be included in this section.

• The results can be given as items in order to emphasize the research results and make the expression understandable.

5.9. Acknowledgements

• In this section, important contributions in the realization of the study, which is the subject of the article, are indicated. An attitude that will distract this section from its main purpose should not be taken in the Acknowledgements.

The contribution should be stated as short and concise as possible to the persons and/or organizations that provided assistance (reading, writing, language assistance, etc.) during the research, and should not take an attitude that would distract this section from its main purpose.

5.10. References

• In this section, only the documents mentioned in the article should be included incomplete.

• Abbreviations should be avoided in naming the publications and journals.

• The mentioned documents should be written in Times New Roman and 9 pt.

• The first line of the references should be written as justified to the left margin of the page, and the other lines should be written by giving a hanging indent value of 1.25.

• The references should be listed in alphabetical order, taking into account the surnames of the authors.

• If one author has more than one work in the same year, lowercase alphabet letters should be used right after the year of publication and the letters should be italic (e.g. Saklar, 2011a, b).

• If more than one document of the same author is cited, first his / her single-name publications in chronological order, then double-names according to the second author's surname in chronological order, and then multi-names according to the alphabetical order of the authors' surnames and publication year should be given.

For example:

Corradini, C. 2007. The conodont genus Pseudooneotodus Drygant from the Silurian and Lower Devonian of Sardinia and the Carnic Alps (Italy), Bollettino-Societa Paleontologica Italiana 46 (2/3), 139-148.

Corradini, C., Corriga, M. G. 2010 Silurian and lowermost Devonian conodonts from the Passo Volaia area (Carnic Alps, Italy), Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 49 (3), 237-253.

Corradini, C., Corriga, M. G., 2012. Pridoli – Lochkovian conodont zonation in Sardinia and the Carnic Alps: implications for a global zonation scheme, Bulletin of Geosciences 87 (4), 635-650.

Corradini, C., Serpagli E. 1999. A Silurian conodont biozonation from late Llandovery to end Pridoli in Sardinia (Italy), In Serpagli (Ed.), Studies on conodonts: Proceedings of the 7th European Conodont Symposium, Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 37 (2-3) (1998), 255-273.

Corradini, C., Corriga, M. G., Männik, P., Schönlaub, H. P. 2015. Revised conodont stratigraphy of the Cellon section (Silurian, Carnic Alps), Lethaia 48 (1), 56-71.

Corradini, C., Leone, F., Loi, A., Serpagli, E. 2001.Conodont Stratigraphy of A Highly Tectonised Silurian-Devonian Section in The San Basilio Area (Se Sardinia, Italy), Bollettino Della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 40 (3), 315-323, 1 Pl.

Corradini, C., Pondrelli, M., Serventi, P., Simonetto, L. 2003.The Silurian cephalopod limestone in the Monte Cocco area (Carnic Alps, Italy): conodont biostratigraphy, Revista Española de Micropaleontologia 35 (3), 285-294.

• If documents of different authors with the same surname are mentioned, they should be written in alphabetical order, considering their first names.

• If the document is in a periodical publication (if it is an article), information about the document is given in the following order: Authors ' surname, first letters of the authors' first names. Year of publication. The name of the article. The name of the publication in which the article was published, volume number and/or issue number with the first letters in the capital, the numbers of the first and last page of the document. Punctuation marks like comma and etc. after journal names should not be used.

• In the examples below, the information about the mentioned documents is organized according to different document types, taking into account the punctuation marks.

For example:

Gürsoy, M. 2017. Munzur Dağları Alt Miyosen çökelleri mollusk topluluğu ve paleoekolojisi (Doğu Anadolu, Türkiye). Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi 155, 75-99.

Pamir, H. N. 1953. Türkiye’de kurulacak bir Hidrojeoloji Enstitüsü hakkında rapor. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 4, 1, 63-68.

Robertson, A. H. F. 2002. Overview of the genesis and emplacement of Mesozoic ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean Tethyan region. Lithos 65, 1-67.

• If the document is a book: authors' surnames, authors' first names. Year of publication. Title of the book with capital letters. The name of the publishing organization or the name of the publication in which the document was published, the volume and/or issue number, and the total number of pages of the book should be specified, respectively.

For example:

Einsele, G. 1992. Sedimentary Basins. Springer Verlag, 628.

Ketin, İ., Canıtez, N. 1956. Yapısal Jeoloji. İTÜ, 308.

Meriç, E. 1983. Foraminiferler. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Eğitim Serisi, 26, 280.

• If the document is published in a book containing the articles of various authors, the usual order for the document included in a periodical publication is followed until the end of the document title. Then the editors' surnames and initials and the abbreviation of the editor word "Ed." is written in parentheses. Then, the title of the book in which the document is located is written with the first letters in capital letters. Name of the publishing organization. The place of publication, the volume number of the publication in which the document was published, and the numbers of the first and last pages of the document should be written.

For example:

Anderson, L. 1967. The latest information from seismic observations. Gaskell, T. F. (Ed.). The Earth's Mantle. Academic Press. London, 335-420.

Göncüoğlu, M. C., Turhan, N., Şentürk, K., Özcan, A., Uysal, S., Yalınız, K. 2000. A geotraverse across northwestern Turkey. Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J. A., Piper, J. D. A. (Ed.). Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and the Surrounding Area. Geological Society of London. Special Publication, 173, 139-162.

• If it is desired to specify the name of a book in which the writings of various authors are collected as a document; following the surnames and names of the book's editors, in parentheses the "Ed." statement is written. Year of publication. Title of the book with capital letters. The name of the publishing organization or the name of the publication in which the document was published, the volume and/or issue number, and the total number of pages of the book should be specified.

For example:

Gaskel, T. F. (Ed.). 1967. The Earth's Mantle. Academic Press, 520.

• If the document is "published abstract", information about the document is given in the following order: Authors' surnames, authors' first names. Year of publication. Name of the document (paper). The name, date and place of the meeting where the paper is published, and the first and last page numbers in the book containing the abstract should be written.

For example:

Öztunalı, Ö., Yeniyol, M. 1980. Yunak (Konya) yöresi kayaçlarının petrojenezi. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu 34. Bilim Teknik Kurultayı, 1980, Ankara, 36.

Yılmaz, Y. 2001. Some striking features of the Anatolian geology. 4. International Turkish Geology Symposium, 24-28 Eylül 2001, Adana, 13-14.

• If the mentioned document has not been published like report, lecture notes and etc., the word "unpublished" should be written at the end of the information about the document in parentheses after the information about the document is given in the usual order for the document in a periodical publication.

For example:

Akyol, E. 1978. Palinoloji ders notları. EÜ Fen Fakültesi Yerbilimleri Bölümü, 45, İzmir (unpublished).

Özdemir, C., Biçen, C. 1971. Erzincan ili, İliç ilçesi ve civarı demir etütleri raporu. Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Rapor No: 4461, 21, Ankara (unpublished).

• For unpublished courses, seminars and similar notes, the course organizer after document name. The place of the meeting. Title of the book and relevant page numbers should be given.

For example:

Walker, G.R., Mutti, E. 1973. Turbidity facies and facies associations. Society for Sedimentary Geology Pacific Section Short Course. Annaheim. Turbitides and Deep Water Sedimentation, 119-157.

• If the document is a thesis; author's surname, initial of the author's first name. Year of publication. Name of the thesis. The type of the thesis, the university where it was given, the total number of pages, its province and the word "unpublished" are written in parentheses.

For example:

Akıllı, H. 2019. Polatlı-Haymana (Ankara) civarı sıcak sularının izotop jeokimyası (δ18O, δD, 3H, δ13C, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr) ve ana iz element bileşimleri ile incelenmesi. PhD Thesis, Ankara University, 255, Ankara (unpublished).

Argun Aktan, Ö. 2019. Marmara Denizi Batı Kıta Sahanlığı Yüzeysel Çökellerinde Jeojenik ve Antropojenik Ağır Metal Zenginleşmesine Yönelik Araştırmalar (Şarköy Kanyonu, KB Türkiye). MSc Thesis, Ankara University, 179, Ankara.

  • Anonymous works should be arranged according to the publishing institution.

For example:

MTA. 1964. 1/500.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası, İstanbul Paftası. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.

• For the documents that are in print, no date is put after the name of the author, the name of the article and the source to be published should be specified and the word "in print" and/or "in review" should be written at the end (in parentheses).

For example:

Ishihara, S. The granitoid and mineralization. Economic Geology 75th Anniversary (in press).

• Information downloaded from the Internet should be given in the form of the name of the institution, its web address, and the date on which the web address was accessed. Turkish references should be given directly in Turkish and should be written in Turkish characters.

For example:

ERD (Earthquake Research Department of Turkey). 3 March 2013.

• While citing the source, the original language should be adhered to, and the title of the article should not be translated.

6. Illustrations

• All of the drawings, photographs, plates and tables used in the article are referred to as "illustrating".

• Illustrations should be used when their use is unavoidable or when they make the subject easier to understand.

• In the selection and arrangement of the format and size of the illustrations, an attitude should be made to prevent loss of space as much as possible considering the page length and layout of the bulletin.

• The number of illustrations used should be proportional to the size of the text.

• All illustrations should be submitted in separate files regardless of the text.

• Abbreviations should not be used in illustration explanations in the text and should be numbered in the order of mention within the text.

• Photographs and plates must be submitted as a computer file in which all details can be seen for the examination of the article, with EPS, TIFF, or JPEG extension and at least 300 dpi resolution.

6.1. Figures

• Drawings and photographs other than the plate to be included in the article are evaluated together as "Figure" and numbered in the order of mention in the text.

• The figures should be prepared in computer considering the dimensions of a single column width as 7.4 cm or double column width as 15.8 cm. The figure area with its caption should not exceed 15.8x21 cm.

• While preparing the figures, unnecessary details should not be included and care should be taken not to use more space than necessary for the transfer of information.

• In figure descriptions, a space should be left after the word "Figure" is written, and the number is given in the usual sequence number, followed by a hyphen (-) and space again, and a description of the relevant figure should be written. If the figure legend exceeds the bottom lines, the following lines should be written after the "Figure 1-" statement alignment. Figure descriptions should be created as follows, without exceeding the edges of the figure and justified on both sides.

For example:

Figure 1- The district of Sandıklı (Afyon); a) geological map of the southwest, b) the general vertical section of the study area (Seymen, 1981), c) Turkey's most important neotectonic structures (modified from Koçyiğit, 1994).

• Drawings should be drawn in the computer properly, clean and with care.

• The use of thin lines that may disappear when minimized in figures should be avoided.

• Symbols or letters used in all drawings should not be less than 2 mm (7 pt.) in Times New Roman.

• All standardized symbols used in the drawings should preferably be explained in the drawing, if they are too long then they should be explained in the figure below.

• Bar scale should be used in all drawings and the north direction should be indicated on all maps.

• The name of the author, description of the figure, figure number should not be included in the drawing.

• Photographs should reflect the aims of the subject and should be in adequate numbers.

• Figures should be framed.

6.2. Plates

• Plates should be used in cases where multiple photographs are required to be printed together on special paper.

• Plate dimensions must be equal to the size of the bulletin's usable area of ​​the page.

• Figure numbers should be written under each of the figures on the plate and a bar scale should be used.

• Original plates must be attached to the final copy to be submitted in the case of acceptance of the manuscript.

• Figures and plates should be numbered among themselves and independently. Figures should be numbered with Latin numerals and plates with Roman numerals (eg Figure 1, Plate I).

• There should be no explanation text on the figures inside the plate.

6.3. Tables

• All tables should be arranged in word format and should be prepared in Times New Roman.

• Tables should not exceed the size of 15x8 cm together with the table caption.

• Table explanations should be created without exceeding the edges of the figure and justified as in the example below.

 For example:

Table 1- Hydrogeochemical analysis results of geothermal waters in the study area.

7. Nomenclature and Abbreviation

• Abbreviations must be in the accepted international or national form. Unusual nomenclature and abbreviations that are not standardized in the article should be avoided. In cases where it is deemed necessary to use such nomenclature and abbreviations, the way and method followed should be explained.

• There should not be a dot between the initials of the words used in standard abbreviations (such as MTA, DSİ).

• Abbreviations of geography aspects should be made in English (N, S, E, W, NE and etc.).

The word group to be abbreviated should be written clearly where it is mentioned the first time and the abbreviation should be given in parentheses, then only the abbreviated form should be written throughout the article.

• Systems with international validity (m, inch, etc.) should be used as the unit of measure. Decimals should be separated with commas in Turkish articles and with a period in English articles.

• The names of figures, plates and tables in the article should not be abbreviated. For example, "As seen in the generalized stratigraphic section of the region (Figure 1) …….".

7.1. Stratigraphic Nomenclature

• Stratigraphic nomenclature should be done in accordance with the Stratigraphical Classification and Nomenclature Rules prepared by Turkey Stratigraphy Committee (TSC).

( )

• Attention should be paid to the use of formation names accepted (formalized) by the TSC. If the formation name used is official, the letter "F" should be capitalized, and if it is informal and plural, the letter "f" should be written in lowercase. For example; Bostancı Formation (formal), Kaynarca formation (unofficial), Baltalimanı, Trakya and Tarlaağızı formations (plural).

7.2. Chronostatigraphic and Geochronologic Nomenclature

• "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (, which is updated annually by the International Stratigraphic Committee, should be taken into consideration in chronostratigraphic and geochronological nomenclature.

• Position within a chronostratigraphic unit can be expressed in adjectives indicating the position, for example: lower, middle, upper and etc. When using these adjectives, it should be decided whether the lower, middle and upper distinction is formal/informal in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart.

For example:

lower Miocene, Upper Holocene and etc.

• When stating the time where a geochronological unit is, temporal adjectives such as; early, middle, late and etc. are used. When using these adjectives, the International Chronostratigraphic Chart should be taken into consideration to decide whether the adjectives begin with capital or lowercase letters.

For example:

early Miocene, Late Holocene etc.

7.3. Paleontological Nomenclature and Spelling of Fossil Names

• Original names of fossils should be used.

For example:

Nummulites with  limestone

• Fossil genus and species names are written in italics, cf., aff. and gr. etc. expressions are written as normal (perpendicular). When writing fossil names for the first time, the surnames of the people who identify them and the year in which they were first defined should be written.  In later uses, the surnames and the year in which they are defined may not be written. The surnames and dates of identifiers coming at the end of the fossil names are not references, they should not be included in the mentioned documents.

 For example:

Alveolina aragonensis Hottinger, 1960 not a reference.

Alveolina cf. aragonensis Hottinger, 1960 not a reference.

Alveolina aff. aragonensis Hottinger, 1960 not a reference.

Alveolina gr. aragonensis Hottinger, 1960 not a reference.

• After the first use of the same genus in the text is written clearly, it can be abbreviated as in the example so that it will not be confused with another genus in later use.

For example:

Alveolina aragonensis, A. polathensis, A. ellipsoidalis etc.

• If the date is in parentheses after the person describing it after the name of the fossil in the text, this is a reference and should be included in the mentioned documents.

For example:

Alveolina aragonensis Hottinger (1960) is a reference.

• The following rules should be taken into account when writing the systematic paleontologic section.

a. First of all, genus, species and subspecies to be identified should be written in hierarchical order like the order, upper family, family type species and so on. Later, the species to be described should be written together with the surnames and dates of the people who defined the subspecies name. If there is a photograph of the described fossil, the plate or figure with the photograph should be added under the fossil name. The names of the authors listed here are not references, so they are not included in the reference.